UW-Stevens Point: Home Economics Timeline: Past To Present (1902-2002)
A celebration of 100 years of dynamic change in Home Economics
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A celebration of 100 years of dynamic change in Home Economics

Picture (262x30, 899 bytes)
Picture (20x22, 167 bytes)ne of the most interesting recent developments in educational work is the wide spread movement toward introducing into school exercises, different forms of hand work. Beginning in the kindergarten and extending through all the grades are paper cutting, carpentry, cooking, and other forms intended to develop the mind as well as the body through doing, rather than by, "learning and saying". This movement is doubtless due in part to a reaction from the extreme devotion to book-study and "recitation" that is too common. It also has its roots in established principles of pedagogy, especially in the doctrine of interest, and in the necessity for the concrete as a basis for the abstract. There is also the hard practical fact that in the changing conditions and growing complexity of modern life with its infinite subdivision of industry, much valuable instruction and training formerly acquired at home are no longer to be had there. Moreover there has been an immense increase in definite scientific knowledge of foods, their composition and preparation, the chemical and physical effects of different modes of cooking, of the sources and conditions of various common diseases, of what constitutes real cleanliness and its relation to the care of the home. To popularize this knowledge and train home-keepers in the application of it to the affairs of every day life seems at least as useful and profitable school work as the study of any other branch of human knowledge. To prepare teachers to undertake this work, either as special teachers giving all their time to it, or as grade teachers making it a part of their regular work, the Board of Regents authorized and established at the Stevens Point State Normal School a course for teachers of Domestic Science and Art.

Picture (25x22, 163 bytes)his course taking two full school years, ranks in grade and difficulty and scope, with the other advanced courses offered at the several normal schools of the state. It leads to the same diploma, and conferring equal privileges, and therefore the conditions of entrance and graduation are the same. Those who are graduates of high schools having a four year course, or who have completed the elementary course at any state normal school are admitted without examination to the junior year. Other teachers will receive the same credit on teachers' certificates as in other courses, and will be given opportunity to take remaining branches of the elementary course either in class of by examination. The diploma will qualify one as special teacher of Domestic Science and Art, or as a regular teacher in ordinary lines.

Picture (31x23, 219 bytes) comparison of the course of study with that of other well known schools for training teachers of Domestic Science will show that it is the object of the Board of Regents to meet fully the demand for thorough preparation in all essentials. By a law of the state of Wisconsin, hereafter all teachers of these branches in the public schools must have had training at least equal to that afforded by the state Normal School.

Course for Teachers of Domestic Science and Art
(for High School Graduates)
Junior Year
First Quarter

*Chemistry (I)
*Sewing (I)

Second Quarter

*Chemistry (I) with laboratory
*Physics (IV)
*Sewing (II)
Third Quarter

*Chemistry (III)
*Cooking (I)

Fourth Quarter

Methods of Teaching
*Cooking (II)

Senior Year
First Quarter

Professional Review (Arithmetic)
Home Sanitation (5)
Home Economics (5)
*Cooking (III)
Second Quarter

Professional Review (Geography)
*Biology and Bacteriology
School Management
*Cooking (IV)

Third Quarter

Professional Review (English)
*Advanced Physiology
*Cooking for Invalids
Home Nursing
Fourth Quarter

Professional Review
History of Education
*Sewing (III)
Emergencies (5)
Laundering (5)
The usual rhetorical exercises will be required as stated for the English-Scientific course, and attendance upon the gymnasium classes whenever the daily program makes that feasible.

*These subjects carry a laboratory period with each daily recitation.

Courses for Teachers of Domestic Science and Art (For those who have completed the Elementary Course at any State Normal School, or whose preparation is equivalent to that course)
Junior Year

First Quarter

*Chemistry (I)
Rhetoric or Literature
Professional Review (Arithmetic)
*Sewing (I)
Second Quarter

Rhetoric or Literature
*Sewing (II)
Third Quarter

*Chemistry (III)
European History
*Cooking (I)
Fourth Quarter

European History
*Cooking (II)Elective

Senior Year
First Quarter

Home Sanitation (5)
Home Economics (5)
*Cooking (III)
Second Quarter

Professional Review
*Advanced Physiology
*Cookery for Invalids
Home Nursing
Third Quarter

Professional Review (English)
*Biology and Bacteriology
*Cooking (IV)

Fourth Quarter

Professional Review (Geography)
History of Education
*Sewing (III)
Emergencies (5)
Laundering (5)
The usual rhetorical exercises will be required as stated for the English-Scientific course, and attendance upon the gymnasium classes whenever the daily program makes that feasible.

*These subjects carry a laboratory period with each daily recitation.

Courses in Detail

Domestic Science I, II, (Cooking)
Twenty weeks; Discussion four periods; laboratory six periods, weekly
I. Combustion, fuels
II. Production, manufacture and value of materials used for food
III. Food principles,-carbohydrates, protein, fat, minerals, water
1. Carbohydrates:
Starch: Experiments to determine composition of the potato; loss in boiling the potato; best method of making white sauces; proportions for different sauces; relation of thickening power of flour and cornstarch; effect of heat, moisture and acid on starch. Microscopic examination of the starch cells. Discussion of composition, digestion and value of starch. Cooking of starchy foods: Potato, cereal, cornstarch pudding. Sugar and cellulose. Digestion and value; Relation to starch.
2. Proteid:
Experiments to determine effect of different degrees of heat on egg albumen; solubility of simple proteids; composition of milk. Discussion of proteid foods,-source, care, structure, composition, digestion, and nutritive value. Location of meat cuts; trip to meat market; preservation of eggs, etc. Cooking of proteid foods: The egg,-poached,"boiled," scrambled, etc.; Milk,-cottage cheese and junket; Combination of milk and eggs; custards; combination of starch and proteid,-macaroni and cheese; Meat,-tender and tough cuts, including the different methods of cooking, as broiling, saut�ing, stewing, roasting, making of soup, and using leftovers in making meat scallop, loaf, creamed meat, croquettes.
3. Fat:
Trying out fat; frying croquettes; clarifying fat; making an emulsion-olive oil and egg; mayonnaise dressing; discussion of digestion; value of fat.
4. Mineral:
Experiments to determine amount and kind of mineral in the common foods as milk and flour.
5. Water:
Experiments to determine different stages and temperatures of heated water; relative amount of tannic acid in tea and coffee; source, composition, effect upon the body; making of tea, coffee, and coffee jelly.
6. Combination of Food Principles:
(a) Batter and Dough Series: experiments to determine amount of liquid and flour; amount of soda and sour milk; amount of baking powder to use. Microscopic examination of wheat grain. Study of flour; trip to flour mill.
Use of different leavening agents.
(1). Steam, introduced by using a large proportion of liquid; making popovers.
(2). Carbondioxide, introduced by the action of sour milk, molasses, or cream of tartar, and soda; making of griddle cakes, waffles, ginger bread and muffins. Carbondioxide, introduced by the action of different baking powders; making of muffins, simples cakes, cookies; discussion of the relative value of chemicals used to leaven; amount of gas produced and nature of compounds left in the bread; cost estimated of muffins made with soda and baking powder. Carbondioxide, introduced by the action of yeast on sugar; experiments to determine the effect of heat on the yeast plant and effect of different food substances as sugar, flour, milk, salt, ginger and hops; microscopic examination of yeast plant at different stages of growth; discussion of preparation of commercial yeast and fermentation; making of wild yeast and potato yeast; white, whole wheat, rye and corn bread; plain and fancy rolls and bread sticks; sandwiches, preparation for picnics or luncheons.
(3). Air introduced by beating the white of egg; making of omelet, sponge cake, lady fingers, angel food; folding as opposed to stirring or beating.
(b) Constructive Dishes.
Simple salads; making of cream and French dressings; use of mayonnaise previously made; arrangement of materials. Gelatine dishes; experiments to determine amount of gelatine to use; value of albuminoids.
(c) Cooking of Green Vegetables; steaming as a process of cooking; cooking of asparagus, peas and beans; Hollandaise and cream sauces; value of fresh vegetables.
(d) Frozen Dishes: the physics of freezing; value of frozen dishes; making of ices, sherbets, creams, bisques, etc,; economy of frozen dishes.
IV. Cost of food materials: The cost is estimated of each lesson of amounts for an individual and a family of six.
V. Classification of food priniples.
Domestic Science III,IV
IV. Twenty weeks; discussion four periods, laboratory six periods, weekly.
I. Fruit Preservation.
1. Cause of decay and fermentation of fruit and vegetables.
2. Experiments to determine the effect of air, heat, sugar, salt and spice on the keeping of quality fruit.
3. Application of conclusions drawn.
(I.) Drying of fruit-making of prunes and raisins
(2.) Canning of fruit and vegetables; fruit cooked, jars sterilized, filled and sealed; fruit cooked in the can; vegetables, as corn, cooked several successive days; oven canning.
(3.) Preserving; general proportion of sugar and fruit; study of pectose-value of "under-ripe" and "over-ripe" fruit; study of sugar-effect of acid on cane sugar; evaporation-relation of bright day to jelly making.
(4.) Sweet, sour and oil pickling and spicing.
4. Fermentation and non-fermentation. Making of vinegar and grape juice.
5. Study of composition, and nutritive value of fruit.
II. Food Accessories: Condiments, spices and flavorings; effect upon the body.
III. Adulteration of foods: Materials used and means of detection' relation of purchaser to adulteration.
IV. Fish and poultry: Cleaning and boning; frying, baking, broiling; sauces, dressings and force meat; study of varieties, composition, value and care of.
V. Salads for Fall and Winter.
VI. Cake: Making of various loaf and layer cakes and fruit cakes; frostings and fillings.
VII. Pastry: Review of biscuit, making of pie crust, tarts; different methods of adding shortening tried; puff paste-patties and cheese straws; digestion of pie crust.
VIII. Timbales: Swedish timbales, rice, spaghetti and macaroni timbales.
IX. Cheap desserts: Albany, rice, and tapioca puddings; souffl�s.
X. Fancy desserts: Bavarian cream, orange charlotte, etc.; cream puffs.
XI. Table setting and serving: Preparation of dinning room and table; preparation and serving of breakfast, luncheon, and dinner; care of glass, silver and china.
XII. Candy (Christmas Holidays): Fudge, creams, etc.; study of sugar, effect of acid and long cooking; experiment with highly colored candy bought in market to determine amount and kind of coloring used; value of home candy.
XIII. Demonstrations.

Household Management
(Including Sanitation, Home Economics and Home Furnishing)

One period per day, ten weeks.
1. The home, its organization and development.
2. Relation of present complex conditions to the simple life of the past.
3. Systematic Housekeeping. Planning of work for the day and week.
4. Household accounts, method of keeping, value.
5. Cost of living. Division of income.
6. Domestic Service, history, cause of present conditions.
7. Relation of Home to society. The home is a social center.
8. Location of the house in regard to soil and healthful surroundings.
9. Structure of the house, plans, making out specifications.
10. Water supply, source and methods of purifying.
11. Systems of heating and ventilating; ventilating devices.
12. Lighting-natural and artificial.
13. Furnishing of the house; furniture suitable for different rooms; desirable color and design; simple construction; suitable form.
14. Cleaning: Daily, weekly and semi-yearly; study of cleaning agents; practical work with cleaning agents; sweeping, dusting, care of plumbing; cleaning of glass, silver, woodwork, etc.; cleaning of living room.
15. Disinfectants, nature and value; insecticides.


Five periods per week, ten weeks.
I. Composition of the body; elements and compounds found therein.
II. Metabolism.
III. Need of food-quality and amount. As determined by instinctive desire; relation of instinct to surroundings. As determined by experiments of scientists; accurate experiments with calorimeter, conditions not normal; approximate experiments with groups of people, conditions normal. Finally determined by considering instinct, reason, and result of experiment. Variations with conditions: Age, six. Occupation, and climate.
IV. Review of composition of foods; digestion and desirable combinations.
V. Food for the child: Nature's guide, composition of mother's milk; substitute for feeding, composition of cow's milk; child's need and ability to use food; analysis of artificial foods; modified milk; arguments for and against sterilizing and pasteurizing; special care of milk, cows, barns, milk utensils, etc.
VI. Tabulation of food and feeding for a child during first months.
VII. Food during first years: Introductions of cereal gruel dependent upon ability to digest it; argument for and against use of meat juice; variation for summer and winter.
VIII. Dietary for a child of four: Amount and kind of food chosen in accordance with standard given; preparation of dietary.
IX. Dietaries for a family of six: Standard for the family determined; amount and kind of food determined by instinct; comparison of this with standard of scientists; changing amount and kind to fit the standard; reduction of cost from thirty cents per person, per day, to twenty cents and to ten cents; planning of dietary for forty cents.
X. Planning, preparing and serving luncheons; each student serves a luncheon to six persons; cost of luncheon is limited to 60c, 75c or $1.
XI. Value of making out dietaries discussed; knowledge of the composition of foods, correct amounts and proper proportion of food principles gained; ability to reduce cost to the minimum.
XII. Place for dietetics in the curriculum.
1. Upper grade work; very simple experiments that show amount and kind of food needed; composition of milk, the food of the child; composition of egg, the food of the chick; the need of the adult in comparison with that of a child.
2. High School work; limited amount of actual dietary work correlated with the arithmetic; planning and criticizing of menus.

Home Nursing

Five periods per week, ten weeks.
I. Care of children: First care of the child; formation of regular habits; children's diseases.
II. Common Diseases: Tuberculosis, colds, measles, typhoid fever, rheumatism, diabetes; causes, symptoms, care and nature of the disease; disinfection to prevent spread of disease; nature and action of different agents; strength and method of applying them; precautions.
III. The Sick Room: Location, heating, lighting; methods of ventilating; desirable furnishing for sick room; cleaning and disinfecting of sick room; location of bed; bed making; changing of bed and clothing of patient.
IV. The Nurse: Her duty to herself;-regular sleep, meals, rest and recreation; nature of clothing; relation of nurse to doctor; study of some of the things she must do,-baths, injections, etc.

Invalid Cookery

Five periods per week, ten weeks.
I. Study of food in relation to disease.
1. Food for children under abnormal conditions.
2. Feeding in case of certain diseases.
II. Preparation of Foods:
1. Milk preparations: Experiments to determine effect of rennin on milk heated to different degrees; conclusion as to digestion of boiled milk; making of junket and petonized milk; effect of alcoholic fermentation on milk; making of koumiss; value of partially digested foods.
2. Simple combinations with milk; egg-nog, albumenized milk, egg lemonade, etc.
3. Gruels and toast and cereal waters.
4. Acid drinks; apple water, orange albumen, etc.
5. Beef juice, tea, extracts and broth; stimulating effect, comparative amounts of nutriment.
6. Invalid's tray.
7. Toast preparations, dry and creamed.
8. Diabetic milk, almond cakes, cream and coffee, egg-nog, ices without sugar, etc., for diabetic patient.


Five periods per week, ten weeks.
I. Review of circulatory system. Hemorrhages: Kinds, cause, dangers, means of stopping. Fainting: Cause and treatment. Wounds: General care of.
II. Bandaging and disinfection: Making, disinfecting, rolling and care of bandages; practice in applying bandages.
III. Poultices: Arguments for and against the use of poultices; practice in making various kinds; value of hot water applications.
IV. Review of the skin, its structure and function; burns and frost bites; relation of danger to the amount of surface exposed; practice in preparing applications as emulsions of linseed oil and lime water, olive oil and lime water, mixture of olive oil and carbolic acid.
V. Review of muscular and bony structure; sprains; symptoms and treatment; dislocations and fractures; making of splints.
VI. Poisons: Irritants, caustics, narcotics; classification of poisons-kind, symptoms, antidote, general treatment; value and preparation of common emetics and bland drinks; vegetable poisons, fungi, poison ivy, etc,; ptomaine poisoning-cause, action, remedy; alcoholism-relation of food supply to this craving.
VII. Asphyxiation: Causes, artificial respiration.
VIII. Foreign bodies in eye, ear, nose, and throat.
IX. Means of transporting the injured; improvised stretchers and chairs.
X. Limited courses that may be given in the grades and high school.


Five periods per week, ten weeks.
I. Reasons for laundering-health, appearance, comfort, economy.
II. Aims-removal of dirt, avoidance of injury to cloth.
III. Steps in process of laundering: Sorting, mending; removing stains; soaking, rubbing, boiling, rinsing, bluing, starching; hanging, drying and bleaching; sprinkling, ironing, folding.
IV. Means of Cleansing: Mechanical, chemical; value and place of each.
V. Agents used.
1. Water-hard and soft, cause and effect; removal of hardness
2. Soap: Making of soda and potash soaps-use of old fat.
3. Bluing-reasons for use of; kinds and precautions to be taken with each; testing different kinds for iron.
4. Washing Powders: Experiments to determine alkalinity of different powders; comparison with sal soda, which is of known value; classification of chemical agents used-kinds, effect, method of applying, proportion, precaution; classification of stains and method of removing-kind, reagent, method of applying, precaution.
VI. Washing and ironing of the following: Table linen, night dress, underwaist, skirt, shirtwaist, collars and colored aprons.
VII. Experiments to determine effect of water at different temperatures on flannels; cleaning of woolens, silks and laces.
VIII. Care of laundry and furnishings.
IX. Place for laundry work in the grades.

Domestic Art
(Sewing I)

Two periods per day, ten weeks.
I. Course of hand work including the following stitches applied in the making of articles suitable to lower grade work: Overcasting, even and uneven basting; making of burlap mat. Back and half back stitch; burlap marble or button bag. Overhanding, combination stitch, padding and tying; mattress for a doll's bed. Running stitch and hemming; sheets for a doll's bed. Blanket stitch; comfort for doll's bed. Original design and crosswise basting; iron holder. Review of previous stitches; laundry bag and needle book. Gathering and overhanding; pin ball. French hemming; napkin. Weaving and darning; small rug and stockings. Outline and button hole stitch; doily. Sewing on button, making loop, stove holder. Gathering, stroking, matching stripes and checks and putting on a stitched band; kitchen apron. Hemmed patch; gingham model. Hemmed band, button hole, feather stitching, sewing apron. Varied feather stitching, binding; brush and comb care. Catch stitching, hook and eye; doll's skirt. Cross stitch, original design; sofa pillow. Hemstitching and square corners; handkerchief. Overhand patch; gingham model. Darning on wool; woolen model. Embroidering on linen; doily or collar and cuffs. Drawn work; doily or collar and cuffs. Herring bone stitch; turn over collar.
This course is planned to meet the needs of the students having had little or no previous experience in sewing or planning work for children. The use of the stitches is realized since they are applied as they are learned. The articles on which the stitches are applied are made by the normal student on a small scale that she may keep them in a book with notes for future reference.
II. Study of textiles-wool, cotton, linen, silk.
History of the use of textiles; growth, labor involved in producing; steps in manufacture; machinery used; primitive, colonial and present. Properties of textile fabrics; suitability for clothing and house furnishing; probable cost and adulteration of fabrics; economy in choosing material.
III. Discussion of place in the grades for the above work.

Sewing II

Two periods per day, ten weeks.
I. Use of sewing machine: Threading, oiling and general care of machine. Practice stitching on dish towels or other plain work for Domestic Science department; best position for individual at the machine.
II. Making of undergarments: Skirt, drawers, night dress, underwaist. This includes taking of measures, simple drafting, economy in cutting material, fitting and finishing. The making of these garments necessitates learning to make the French, felled and hemmed seams, to bind arm holes, to cut and know the use of a true bias, to join lace and embroidery, to plan yokes, putting in tucks and insertion, to allow for fullness, to make the rolled hem, gusset and different kinds of plackets. The selection of material suitable for underwear; durability of material, how to test for it, price of material; trimmings-desirable pattern and edge similar in quality to material to be used with.
III. Discussion of place in the curriculum for the above work; changing of drafts and styles to fit the grammar grade girl.

Sewing III

Two periods per day, ten weeks.
Shirt waist suit. Drafting of plain waist, collar and sleeves. Experimental work in drafting and making trial sleeve of different styles; changing from plain to full shirtwaist pattern. Drafting of seven gore skirt and changing to three, five, seven and eleven gore patterns. Planning of yokes, flares, flounces, plaits and tucks in skirt. Planning of nature and color of material that is most becoming. Planning of style and quality that will be most economical. Sponging of material. Cutting that there may be least waste. Fitting and finishing.

Special attention is given to the shirt sleeve placket, skirt placket, neat and convenient fastenings, and finishing of seams.

Character of the Course

A strict account is kept of all materials used in cooking, both of quantity and cost. The course will embrace instruction in planning, preparing and serving meals. And in these cases the cost per person will be kept within prescribed limits, and a study of dietaries will show the proper proportions of food elements demanded, and the proportions actually furnished.

Students in this course will have experience in Teaching Classes in Cooking and Sewing, since these subjects are introduced into the grades of the Training Department as shown by the course of study for those grades given on another page.

It is the constant effort of this department to make instruction thoroughly practical for advanced students, yet simple enough to furnish suitable foundation for instruction of children in the grades.

The required Science Studies of the course will be seen to be such as bear directly upon the efficiency of household processes. Chemistry of cookery, bacteriology and that part of physics dealing especially with heat and liquids will be given careful attention. Some of this work will be done with regular Normal classes, but separate classes will be formed whenever necessary.

While all furnishings, tables, sinks, utensils, are of the simplest sort, just such as may be had in the plainest homes, they are of the best grade and style for every day use, thus giving practical lessons in household economy. Moreover the teachers so trained will be able to teach the subject in the schools under ordinary conditions, without the elaborate equipment sometimes thought necessary.

Course of Study in Domestic Science and Art
Used in the grades of the Training Department

Primary Grades

In the third grade the boys and girls learn to thread a needle, tie knots, wear a thimble, and to make the simple stitches outlined in Sewing I. Work on coarse burlap, heavy denim, felt and coarse muslin and gingham is planned, that the child may use the large muscles of the arm rather than use too much the fine ones of the hand. In this grade, wool is studied. The children examine their clothing; trace the life of the sheep and its fleece until woven into cloth from which their coats and dresses are made.

Intermediate Grades

In these grades simple useful articles and garments are made by the girls. See Sewing I. Some garments, as the underskirt, necessitates drafting a pattern. This requires the application of arithmetic and drawing. In these grades, cotton, linen and silk; and the processes of weaving, spinning, dyeing and printing, are studied. This is to be most effective should be correlated with geography and history.

Sixth Grade. Third Quarter

I. Heating and Fuels: (1) The laundry range is studied. A fire is built; and the flame and smoke are carefully watched as checks and dampers are regulated. (2) Reasons for steps in fire building; materials for kindling. (3) The formation, process of getting and cost, of wood, coal, and gas. (4) The heating systems of hot air and steam used in the school are visited and studied; furnace, boilers, pipes, registers, flues.
II. Ventilation and the Respiratory System. (1) The school ventilating system is traced. (2) Relation of ventilation to heating systems in the home. (3) Effect of heat on air; location of registers; devices for ventilating. (4) Need of ventilation; the amount of air inspired, number of respirations per minute, and quality of air exhaled is studied; the amount of air space required is calculated. Experiments with flame and bell jar; with lime water and exhaled air. (5) Breathing. Tracing of air thru the passages. Breathing exercises and standing position. (6) Relation of breathing to circulation; the pulse; effect of exercise upon breathing and the pulse.
III. Water Supply, Waste. (1) Source of water; kinds; salt and fresh; hard and soft; pure and impure. (2) Purification of water. (3) Disposal of waste. Protection of drinking water. Relation of water to disease.

Grammar Grades

The course for the seventh and eighth grades is planned with the thought that the practice teacher needs experience in teaching a domestic science lesson not strictly cooking. On this account sanitary, home nursing, serving, home furnishing, accounts, and laundry lessons are scattered throughout the course instead of being placed in a series.

First the children are made acquainted with their surroundings; then taught in a very simple way concerning the source, manufacture, cooking and digestion of food. Opportunity is afforded to give clear ideas concerning the preparation of food that it may be wholesome, by actually making bread, cooking meat, etc. A careful study of the food principles is made. The science is thoroughly taught by being immediately made use of in the laboratory.

Seventh Grade. First Quarter
1. Apple compote; fire building. 2. Baked potato; dish washing; towel washing. 3. Cooking of cereals; study of starch. 4. Chocolate pudding; starch slides examined. 5. Cleaning; sweeping and dusting. 6. Creamed potato; white sauce. 7. Experiments with eggs; poached egg; study of proteid. 8. Broiled steak; tender cuts of meat. 9. Cleaning; desk and utensils.

Second Quarter
1. Hamburg steak or stew; tough cuts of meat. 2. Milk; cottage cheese. 3. Soft custard; combination of materials. 4. Baked custard; review of proteids. 5. Cranberry jelly (Thanksgiving lesson). 6. Cleaning; sinks and ice box; study of plumbing. 7. Candy; study of sugar (Christmas lesson). 8. Cocoa; reviews; planning of breakfast. 9. Cleaning; dining room, silver and glass. 10. Preparing and serving a breakfast.

Third Quarter
1. Keeping accounts; cost of materials. 2. Popovers; steam a leavening agent. 3. Bread crumb or rice griddle cakes. 4. Waffles; soda a leavening agent. 5. Wheat muffins; baking powder a leavening agent. 6. Corn and whole wheat muffins. 7. Omelet; effect of heat on air. 8. Sponge cake; air a leavening agent. 9. Review of leavening agents; balancing of accounts. 10. Bread; study of yeast.

Fourth Quarter
1. Sandwiches; preparation for picnic. 2. Salad dressing; lettuce salad. 3. Tomato salad; study of arrangement. 4. Coffee jelly; study of gelatine; whipped cream. 5. Rhubarb sauce; value of mineral. 6. Study of water; making tea. 7. Asparagus on toast; fresh vegetables. 8. Lemon ice and sherbet; freezing. 9. Furnishing of dining room and home, preparatory to serving lesson. 10. Ice cream; serving.

Eighth Grade. First Quarter
1. Drying and canning fruit; cause of decay and fermentation. 2. Canning tomatoes and corn by different methods. 3. Preserving fruits; sugar as a preservative. 4. Jelly; study of sugar and the composition of fruits. 5. Study of micro-organisms that cause food to spoil and cause disease; cleaning and disinfecting of sick room. 6. Use of antiseptics; bandaging. 7. Bread; relation of yeast to spoiling of fruit, making vinegar and making bread. 8. Bread or rolls; yeast a leavening agent. 9. Boiled rice. Review of starch. 10. Macaroni and cheese; combination of starch and proteid.

Second Quarter
1. Junket and egg-nog; review of milk; invalid's tray. 2. Baked fish; cleaning, broiling and baking. 3. Chicken (Thanksgiving lesson). 4. Beef juice and beef tea; invalid cookery. 5. Meat soup; review of meat cuts. 6. Tomato soup; value and serving of soup. 7. Suet pudding (Christmas lesson). 8. Candy fodant; bonbons of various kinds. 9. Review of food principles; planning of luncheon. 10. Preparing and serving a luncheon.

Third Quarter
1. Potato croquettes; frying. 2. Codfish balls; objection to frying. 3. Clarifying fat; value of fat as food; mayonnaise dressing. 4. Waldorf salad; combination of flavor. 5. bed room lesson. 6. Ginger bread; review of soda as a leavening agent. 7. One egg cake; review of baking powder as a leavening agent. 8. Layer cake; combination of material. 9. Frosting; review of sugar. 10. Angel food; air as a leavening agent.

Fourth Quarter
1. Cookies; handling of dough. 2. Biscuit; new manipulation of material. 3. Strawberry short cake. 4. Tarts; objection to pie crust. 5. Apple pie; different methods of making pastry. 6. Laundering; washing of table linen. 7. Ironing of table linen. 8. Removing of stains. 9. Gelatine desert. 10. Ice cream; serving.

Science in the Grades
The science in the eighth grade is closely correlated with
cooking, and serves to unite home life and school interests.

Eighth Grade. Second Quarter
1. Requirements of the body; air, water and food; the amount and quality of air and water is studied; experiments to show the presence of water in foods. 2. Experiment to determine kinds of food needed; simple analysis of milk, the food of the child. 3. Study of proteid; experiments to determine what foods contain proteid; testing of egg, meat, bread, and flour. 4. Study of starch; testing of different foods. 5. Study of sugar; experiments to determine presence of sugar. 6. Study of mineral; burning of food to ash; study of fat; testing food for fat. 7. Review; classification of food materials; value of different foods. 8. Food requirement of an adult as compared with the child; need for food as effected by occupation and climate; food for Summer and Winter. 9. Planning of menus that supply the different food principles in approximately correct proportions. 10. Preparing and serving of breakfast planned.

Third Quarter
The science of the third quarter is a continuation of the second.
1. Further study of the breakfast served; tracing of food thru the digestive organs. 2. Experiment to show the necessity for a solution of foods; cooking and mastication. 3. Digestion of the cereal and toast; experiment to show the effect of saliva and pancreatic juice on starch. 4. Digestion of the egg and milk; experiment to show the effect of gastric juice and pancreatic juice on proteid. 5. Digestion of the butter; experiments to show the digestion of fat. 6. Digestion of various combinations of foods. Relation of cooking to digesting; absorption of foods digested; experiment to show process of osmosis. 7. The blood: (a) constituents, (b) circulation. 8. Muscle, heat, and energy the final result of food taken. 9. Wastes of the body; necessity for ventilation and baths; renewal of waste. 10. Review.

Ninth Grade
Sewing. First Quarter
1. During the first quarter material for an underskirt is selected; the pattern is drafted; the skirt is cut, fitted and finished. Some of the thing necessarily learned are how to join embroidery, gather neatly, make tucks, a placket, and put on a band. The hemming and other work is done by hand.

Second Quarter
The second quarter the girls make a sewing apron by hand; a Christmas gift consisting of something embroidered, as collar and cuffs, or a doily. Practice in pattern weaving is followed by darning and mending.
Home Management. Third Quarter
I. Development of the home. (1) The primitive home. Pictures and stories to illustrate. (2) The colonial home; industries carried on. (3) The present home; the modern home is analyzed; a typical modern home is visited.
II. The House. (1) Location and plans for a house. (2) The kitchen, bath room and basement. (3) Visit to a hardware store. (4) Visit to plumber's store; sanitary fixtures and cost studied. (5) Cleaning of sinks, traps, and pipes; principles of plumbing. (6) Dining room and hall; sanitary comfortable and durable furnishings, pleasing colors, and convenient arrangement. (7) Care of furniture; dusting and polishing. (8) Visit to furniture factory. (9) Bed rooms and sick room or nursery. (10) Visit to furniture, carpet and rug store.
III. Heating, Ventilating, Lighting, Drainage and Water Supply. (1) Heating and ventilating; the school systems are visited; a coal range is examined and a fire built. (2) A home heating plant is visited. (3) The amount of fresh air required is calculated; devices for ventilating are tried. (4) Lighting; natural and artificial; comparison of effect of different methods of lighting on the air in a room; care of lamps. (5) Water supply; source and purification of water. (6) Disposal of waste; review of plumbing; relation of waste to water supply.
IV. Care of the Home and its occupants. (1) Practical lesson in bedroom work. (2) Disinfection is studied, and one method tried. (3) Cleaning a living room; care of kitchen utensils. (4) Use of antiseptics; care of mouth and teeth; care of wounds. (5) Making, disinfecting and applying bandages. (6) What to do in case of a burn. (7) Keeping account; household bills for a month. (8) Review; how to make the home a healthful and happy place.
Cooking. Fourth Quarter
During the Spring quarter the girls have an opportunity to review the principles learned in seventh and eighth grade cooking. They apply these principles in making combinations not tried in the lower grades. The girls may choose to a certain extent what they make. The chafing dish sometimes is used. Toward the end of the quarter the food requirements of the body are studied; menus planned; and meals prepared and served.

Practical Value of Domestic Science
1. The subject of domestic science includes those things with which a woman must necessarily deal every day of her life.
2. The child, thru proper instruction, and illustration of right ideals, adopts a proper standard of home life.
3. Habits of accuracy, observation, reflection, application of science to real life, careful movement, order, neatness and cleanliness, are the result of daily practice.
4. A young girl's interest in home and home duties is retained and intensified by finding out the reason for doing this and that.
5. With a knowledge of the principles of ventilation, heating, lighting, plumbing, cleaning, and disinfecting; of the food requirements of different people, and how to supply them, the woman in the home is enabled to keep her family well nourished and comparatively free from disease.
6. A knowledge of the composition of food makes it possible to prevent digestive disorders.
7. With a knowledge of the nature of food materials a substitution of one thing for another may be made, so as wisely to meet an emergency, or save money.
8. Ability to plan profitably the division of income, and keep accounts that are of value for reference, may save the family from "living beyond their means," with consequent unhappiness.
9. Ability to draft patterns, make and mend articles of clothing, may add more to one's happiness and prosperity than any other school study.
10. Mistress and maid who have solved the same problems in home management are mutually helpful.
11. Domestic science really means "right living."
12. "A girl has a right to an education as precisely adapted to a woman's work as is a boy's preparatory to a man's work."

For the Domestic Science Department there are provided six rooms. On the first floor is located the lecture room and laboratory, 25 x 40 feet. On one side of this is a room about 11 x 25 feet for pantry, store room and apron closet, and on the other side a dining room about 13 x 20 feet. These are suitably furnished. In the laboratory each of twenty-two pupils has her own individual gas stove, an oven, a drawer of necessary cooking utensils, mold board, etc. In the center, easily seen by all, is the teacher's demonstration table. Conveniently located about the room are a gas range, an ice box, sinks with hot and cold water, cases for books and bulletins, and food exhibits.
The sick room, 17 x 18 feet, is located just off the main hall that it may be accessible in case of emergency as well as serve its purpose for class room work. It is furnished in such a way that it can be adapted for use in connection with the lessons in "Household Management" and "Home Nursing."
The laundry, 25 x 16 feet, is furnished with set and portable tubs, washing machine, hot and cold water, a coal and wood range, ironing tables, and cupboards.
There is also a light and attractive sewing room, 23 x 30 feet, furnished with sewing machines of different styles, sewing tables, fitting room and closet.
The general library has a good working condition collection of books upon the various topics embraced in the course; and in the department there is available a fine classified and indexed collection of bulletins and pamphlets issued by bureaus of the United States government, and by different states and schools.
Stevens Point State Normal School Bulletin 1906

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